Ware, Randall (1 May 1994). [10], Other young men sought to evade the draft by avoiding or resisting any military commitment. Information campaigns were carried out by organizations like Students for a Democratic Society and Save Our Sons to spread information on how to avoid the draft. |date=}}Draft dodging was also common in Australia during the Vietnam War, though locally it was known as Draft Resistance or active non-compliance, see conscription in Australia. [41] Journalists often noted their effectiveness. --American Historical Review "Foley's book, in which well-chosen anecdotes are matched by solid … Early draft resistance in the Vietnam War, 1966-69 The Australian Menzies Government introduced conscription in late 1964 in the form of a ballot of 20-year-olds to ensure it could send enough troops to the Vietnam war in a context where it was uncertain that it could or would secure enough volunteers to prosecute the war. Draft Resistance in the Vietnam Era Introduction In this paper I will look at the men who resisted the draft during the Vietnam war years, and compare various aspects of their collective experience with draft resistance during other U.S. wars of the 20th century. [80] The LDS Church eventually agreed to cap the number of missionary deferments it sought for members in any one region. In Toronto, vocal draft resisters settled in Baldwin Village, adjacent to Kensington Market. A collection of DR member Fred Lonidier's photographs in the December 21, 1967 issue of The Agitator, an antiwar newsletter for the Northwest, published in Portland. [2], As U.S. troop strength in Vietnam increased, some young men sought to evade the draft by pro-actively enlisting in military forces that were unlikely to see combat in Vietnam. [83]) Sanders's CO status was denied. Five young people sitting and talking intently, Evasion in Australia and the United States, American emigration to Canada and elsewhere, Cortright (2005), cited above, p. 165 (quoting task force chair. These draft resisters hoped that their public civil disobedience would help to bring the war and the draft to an end. 1978), 69. "Voices of Our Times: I Refuse: Memories of a Vietnam War Objector". [8] Similarly, the Vietnam-era National Guard was seen by some as an avenue for avoiding combat in Vietnam,[10] although that too was less than foolproof: about 15,000 National Guardsmen were sent to Vietnam before the war began winding down. Clausen, Oliver (21 May 1967). [78], According to a column by E. J. Dionne in The Washington Post, by 2006 politicians whom opponents had accused of improperly avoiding the draft included George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Bill Clinton. This page includes a short history, documents, and over two hundred photographs of the draft resistance movement in the Northwest. Nothing inspires so much enduring controversy and strongly held opinions as the subject of active draft resistance during the Vietnam War. I will examine the number of men who resisted, the types of evasion, and the reasons they gave for resisting. Military conscription, commonly known as “the draft,” is one of the most complex topics related to the Vietnam War. So great were the numbers of draft resisters that in 1977, President Carter passed a general amnesty to all those who had fled abroad in defiance of the draft, allowing them to return to the United States, and out of 209,517 accused draft offenders, less than 9,000 were convicted. In 1989, approximately two decades after the fact, Chase revealed on a television talk show that he avoided the Vietnam War by making several false claims to his draft board, including that he harbored homosexual tendencies. The number of draft resisters in the United States was notably significant. Draft resistance by Japanese Americans is typically understood as the defiance of conscription notices by incarcerated Nisei in 1944 and 1945, but as Cherstin Lyon argues, the phenomenon can more accurately be understood as starting earlier. This is part of the Vietnam War Special Section. Special thanks to Fred Lonidier for donating images and documents from his private collection. A significant portion of the growth in American immigration to Canada from the mid- 1960s to the mid-1970s was a consequence of the Vietnam War. Draft resisters filed for conscientious objector status, didn’t report for induction when called, or attempted to claim disability. Opposition to the draft during Vietnam was widespread, with some personally opposed to forced military service, some opposed to the war as a whole as illegitimate and immoral, and some opposed to the system of deferments which led to a disproportionately working class force in Vietnam— as many as three quarters of those who served in Vietnam were from either working or lower class families. "[46][47] It sought to speak for American draft evaders and deserters in Canada. Combined with the revolt inside the military and the larger civilian antiwar movement, draft resistance acted as another fetter on the government’s ability to wage a war in Vietnam, and brought the war home in a very personal way for a generation of young men. Photo: A clergyman joining those burning draft cards at Arlington Street Church in Boston, October 1967. Some were connected to national groups, such as the American Friends Service Committee and Students for a Democratic Society; others were ad hoc campus or community groups. 1, no. Since the draft loomed over students’ futures and provided an avenue for direct resistance to war on an individual level, much student activism was concerned with the draft. Some draft evaders returned to the U.S. from Canada after the 1977 pardon, but according to sociologist John Hagan, about half of them stayed on. Did a Queens Podiatrist Help Donald Trump Avoid Vietnam? According to Cortright, "Distinct from the millions who [avoided] the draft were the many thousands who resisted the conscription system and actively opposed the war". "Draft-Age Dilemma". 1968). The groups that once supported war resisters have long since disbanded. Their libidinal hyperactivity accords with [Herbert] Marcuse's belief in the liberatory power of eros. There was a film made about a draft dodger in Australia during the later stages of the Vietnam War that is often shown as part of Aus… [26][27] Harris was an anti-draft organizer who went to jail for his beliefs (and was briefly married to folk singer Joan Baez),[23] Miller was the first Vietnam War refuser to publicly burn his draft card (and later became partner to spiritual teacher Starhawk),[24] Elmer refused to register for the draft and destroyed draft board files in several locations,[25] and Dancis led the largest chapter of Students for a Democratic Society (the one at Cornell University) before being jailed for publicly shredding his draft card and returning it to his draft board. (April 1992). "Toronto's Anti-Draft Office Jammed". Sherry Gershon Gottlieb, Hell No, We Won’t Go! [45] In addition to the counseling groups (and at least formally separate from them) was a Toronto-based political organization, the Union of American Exiles, better known as "Amex. Have children who need you "Draft Resistance, Lefr Nationalism, and the Politics of Anti-Imperialism". These galleries are part of the Pacific Northwest Antiwar and Radical History Project , which features a page on draft resistance in the Northwest during the Vietnam War . The Los Angeles Resistance was formed in 1967 as an alternative to the draft, war, and mighty military machine, and as such was dedicated to non-violent non-cooperation with the Selective Service System, the federal government agency which administered the Vietnam War draft. [48], Those who went abroad faced imprisonment or forced military service if they returned home. [83] (Sanders was opposed to the Vietnam War. [31] Draft evader Ken Kiask spent eight years traveling continuously across the Global South before returning to the U.S.[32], The number of Vietnam-era draft evaders leaving for Canada is hotly contested; an entire book, by scholar Joseph Jones, has been written on that subject. Australian Draft Resistance and the Vietnam War - statements by Michael Matteson and Geoff Mullen An overview of anarchist involvement in the Australian anti-war movement by Takver.com followed by two articles in the form of statements by Michael Matteson and Geoff Mullen, who were both imprisoned for draft resistance. [87][88], Joe Biden, a former U.S. vice president and senator who became President-elect of the United States in 2020, was excused from military service in 1968 because of asthma as a teenager. [7], In 1964 Australia enacted a draft for soldiers to send to Vietnam. Scholar Michael Foley argues that it was not only relatively ineffective, but that it served to siphon off disaffected young Americans from the larger struggle. [82] In a Salon article from 2007, liberal journalist Joe Conason noted that Romney's father had been governor of Michigan at the time. Examples of draft evasion can be found in many nations over many time periods: For the Canadian government, the appearance of large numbers of draft resisters at the border was a boon. During the Vietnam draft, people would stay awake for days ahead of their medical screening, do a lot of illegal drugs, or otherwise make themselves appear generally unhealthy to avoid being draft. Feb 26, 2012 - This Pin was discovered by Connie W. Discover (and save!) From 1966 to 1968 a growing force of conscientious objectors grew in Australia and by 1967 became openly popular due to a growing protest movement. Satin, Mark (2017). As the U.S. sent more troops to Vietnam, the government depended on the draft to conscript enough men to fight the war, so The Resistance aimed at destroying the … [6] More recently, peace studies scholar David Cortright estimated that 60,000 to 100,000 left the U.S., mainly for Canada or Sweden. Peters, Pamela J. Ask Ted Nugent about doing meth and crapping his pants to avoid the draft. "A Grey Memoir of a Colorful Time". [3], After the war, some of the draft evaders who stayed in the U.S. wrote memoirs. Australian Draft Resistance and the Vietnam War - statements by Michael Matteson and Geoff Mullen. [19] Students for a Democratic Society sought to play a major role in it,[20] as did the War Resisters League,[18] the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee's "National Black Anti-War Anti-Draft Union"[21] and other groups. Draft Resistance Today in history: Muhammad Ali refuses Army induction (April 28, 1967) On April 28, 1967, boxing champion Muhammad Ali refuses to be inducted into the U.S. Army and is immediately stripped of his heavyweight title. [4] The head of U.S. President Richard Nixon's task force on the all-volunteer military reported in 1970 that the number of resisters was "expanding at an alarming rate" and that the government was "almost powerless to apprehend and prosecute them". [85], Donald Trump, who became President of the United States in 2017, graduated from college in the spring of 1968, making him eligible to be drafted and sent to Vietnam; but he received a diagnosis of bone spurs in his heels. Significant draft avoidance was taking place even before the U.S. became heavily involved in the Vietnam War. Draft Registration, Draft Resistance, and Selective Service. The following two articles are from Peacemaker, Sept - Dec 1971 Vol 33 Nos 9-12, published by the Federal Pacifist Council of Australia.They highlight that anarchists were active within the Draft Resistance Movement during the Vietnam War. Neither President Johnson nor General Hershey saw any grace in draft resistance. Unlike so-called draft dodgers, who left the country or manipulated deferments, draft resisters openly defied draft laws by burning or turning in their draft cards. ... but many draft resisters imprisoned during the Vietnam War, as well as some of the 20 nonregistrants prosecuted in the early 1980s, now hold professional jobs in business, in … It focuses on Boston as a prominent centre of the movement and reveals the crucial role of draft resisters in shifting anti-war sentiment to the centre of American politics. Hundreds of thousands of young men opposed to an unjust war said NO to being drafted into the military, risking up to five years in federal prison. In 1972. there was more resistors than actual draftees. Added: Jan 2015 Tags: encyclopedia | history Vietnam War Deserters and Draft Resisters in Canada : List of Selected Works / Joseph Jones Three lists of books. Just being a student was not enough to keep him from Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance During the Vietnam War: Foley, Michael S.: Amazon.nl Selecteer uw cookievoorkeuren We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. Draft resistance by Japanese Americans is typically understood as the defiance of conscription notices by incarcerated Nisei in 1944 and 1945, but as Cherstin Lyon argues, the phenomenon can more accurately be understood as starting earlier. If a young man did not want to fight, he would seek a deferment by getting a defense-related job. [18] Many say that the draft resistance movement was spearheaded by an organization called The Resistance. This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 06:43. [2] McGill (2017), cited above, pp. According to Cortright, "Distinct from the millions who [avoided] the draft were the many thousands who resisted the conscription system and actively opposed the war". [5] [3], The number of draft resisters in the United States was notably significant. All these books portray their protagonists' views, motives, activities, and relationships in detail. 247–252. Banks (5 October 2015), cited above, third section, 9th paragraph. Read More. The fact that there were more women than men suggests that the immigration during that period may have had less to do with the draft and more to do with the instability of the US during that period. Satin (2017, orig. This work looks at draft resistance, the cutting edge of the anti-war movement at the height of the Vietnam conflict. [3] Navigate; Linked Data; Dashboard; Tools / Extras; Stats; Share . The military draft and the escalation of the Vietnam war played a major role in turning direct action resistance into a mass movement on college campuses in the mid-1960s, including at the University of Michigan. For more on draft counseling, see Lawrence M. Baskir and William A. Straus, Chance and Circumstance: The Draft, the War, and the Vietnam Generation (Knopf, 1978); Amy J. Rutenberg, Rough Draft: Cold War Military Manpower Policy and the Origins of Vietnam-Era Draft Resistance (Cornell University Press, 2019); Michael S. Foley, Confronting the War Machine: Draft Resistance during the Vietnam … [60] American draft evaders who left for Canada and became prominent there include politician Jim Green, gay rights advocate Michael Hendricks, attorney Jeffry House, author Keith Maillard, playwright John Murrell, television personality Eric Nagler, film critic Jay Scott, and musician Jesse Winchester. Beitiks was drafted and spent two years in the army, 10 months as an infantryman in Vietnam. Demonstrators burning draft cards outside the Selective Service Office in Seattle, c. 1969. [89] A shorter version of the AP story ran in Newsday, a New York newspaper.[90]. [89][90] An Associated Press (AP) story, run in The Washington Times, states: "In Promises to Keep, a memoir that was published [in 2007] … , Mr. Biden never mentions his asthma, recounting an active childhood, work as a lifeguard and football exploits in high school". 2: Canadian Immigration Policy 1966-1974 and the Arrival of U.S. Vietnam War Resisters No. Kill! Together with Students for a Democratic Society at UW, DR organized antiwar organizations at area high schools (Queen Anne, Lincoln, Roosevelt, Rainier Beach, Ingraham, West Seattle, Shorecrest, Bellevue, Sammammish, and Sealth) in February of 1968, and the following April, put on a Northwest Draft Resistance Conference. They “drafted” men ages 18-25, By the later years of the war in the early 1970s, draft resistance reached its peak. Beelaert, Amy M. (November 1993). 1: The Numbers for U.S. Baskir and Strauss (1978), cited above, p. 169. They were then drafted, refused to be inducted, and fought their cases in the federal courts. Draft evasion in the Vietnam War was a common practice in Australia[2] and the United States. [81] After Romney dropped out of Stanford University and was about to lose his student deferment, he decided to become a missionary; and the LDS Church in his home state of Michigan chose to give him one of that state's missionary deferments. Hundreds of thousands of young men opposed to the war said NO to being drafted into the military, risking up to five years in prison. ". "Canada Increasingly Draft Dodgers' Haven". That’s nice, Ted. [16], Alongside the draft counseling groups, a substantial draft resistance movement emerged. The largest were the Montreal Council to Aid War Resisters, the Toronto Anti-Draft Programme, and the Vancouver Committee to Aid American War Objectors. When Jimmy Carter reintroduced the current registration system in 1980, a powerful anti-draft movement hobbled the government’s efforts to implement it. Copyright (c) Fred Lonidier. [4] According to their literature, DR was successful in “delaying the induction of from 5 to 10 persons a week” by 1968, and continued support campaigns for draft resisters, solidarity protests at the Canadian border, and marches to the Selective Service system throughout the late 1960s.[5]. Fred Lonidier's collection of photographs of Vietnam-era anti-draft organizing by Draft Resistance-Seattle and other antiwar activists. "[12] The book 1001 Ways to Beat the Draft was co-authored by Tuli Kupferberg, a member of the band The Fugs. Added: Sept 2014 In this excerpt from his memoir of draft resistance during the Vietnam War, Death Wins All Wars, Daniel Holland discusses the military-industrial complex and the importance of acting on individual conscience. Eat dead burnt bodies!' Boston University Libraries. ... [Another surprise is that the dodgers] have little interest in romantic love. Passing out leaflets at the doors of Induction Centers was a common tactic used by anti-Vietnam War protestors. In the spring of 1943, when the imprisonment of Japanese Americans was nearing the end of its first year, the U.S. Army decided to … Rosenthal, Harry F. (2 June 1968). 120–122. The “Call” emphasized documented incidents of American war crimes in Vietnam, and called on Americans to support draft resisters, whom signers saw … With an overview of the broader draft resistance movement, Burglar for Peace is an exploration of the sweeping landscape of the American Left during the Vietnam War era as we accompany Ted Glick on a journey through his personal evolution from typical, white, middle-class, American teenager to an antiwar, nonviolent draft resister. 1968), cited above, pp. "Expatriate Draft Evaders Prepare Manual on How to Immigrate to Canada". 1–6. [18] The insignia of the organization was the Greek letter omega, Ω, the symbol for ohms—the unit of electrical resistance. your own Pins on Pinterest Prezi Video + Unsplash: Access over two million images to tell your story through video Early draft resistance in the Vietnam War, 1966-69 The Australian Menzies Government introduced conscription in late 1964 in the form of a ballot of 20-year-olds to ensure it could send enough troops to the Vietnam war in a context where it was uncertain that it could or would secure enough volunteers to prosecute the war. These included David Harris's Dreams Die Hard (1982),[23] David Miller's I Didn't Know God Made Honky Tonk Communists (2001),[24] Jerry Elmer's Felon for Peace (2005),[25] and Bruce Dancis's Resister (2014). These points have been made in a series of academic journal articles by Canadian social historian David Churchill: Hagan (2001), cited above, p. 186 (quoting Baskir and Strauss). North Vietnam and the Vietcong lost about the same and up to two million Vietnamese civilians were killed in the fighting. [76][77], Conservative talk radio show host Rush Limbaugh reportedly avoided the Vietnam draft because of anal cysts. [11] Folksinger Arlo Guthrie lampooned the paradox of seeking a deferment by acting crazy in his song "Alice's Restaurant": "I said, 'I wanna kill! Dunford, Gary (3 February 1968). Two academic literary critics have written at length about autobiographical novels by draft evaders who went to Canada – Rachel Adams in the Yale Journal of Criticism[63] and Robert McGill in a book from McGill-Queen's University Press. [4], One of the most active draft resistance groups in Seattle was Draft Resistance-Seattle (DR), the local chapter of a larger national network that included a chapter in Portland, Oregon. Draft Resisters and Deserters Who Moved to Canada No. Nevertheless, the system has continued to register young men. 1964-1969,” Special Collections Library, University of Washington Many such groups were active during the war. Retrieved 27 July 2018. During the Vietnam War, a massive draft resistance movement forced the government to eliminate the conscription system altogether. Draft Resistance. For example, it lobbied and campaigned for universal, unconditional amnesty, and hosted an international conference in 1974 opposing anything short of that. Vietnam Section Home Click images on the sidebar to explore Vietnam-era draft resistance photographs and documents, or scroll down to read a short history of the movement both regionally and nationally. 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